本頁提供了有關使用WebCite(一個網路存檔英语web archiving服務)的資訊,其網址為http://www.webcitation.org/。使用WebCite的話,如果原始頁面被移動、更改或刪除,維基百科編者就可以透過保留一個在線的來源副本減少連結失效英语Link rot。但是,並非所有網頁都可以存檔。[nb 1]

WebCite可以歸檔一系列內容,包括HTML網頁、PDF檔案、CSS樣式表JavaScript数字图像。另一個網路存檔服務是網路時光機。這兩種服務之操作方法不同,某些頁面可以由其中一個存檔,但另一個就無法存檔。網路時光機使用機器人在特定時間自動存檔某些網頁,並接受由用戶請求發起的存檔過程;WebCite則需要有人主動歸檔鏈接。

如何存檔

有很多方法可以將網頁提交到WebCite進行歸檔。如果你是新手,建議使用網頁表單。其他方法較適合那些使用WebCite的老手。

網頁表單

此方法易於使用,但比其他方法慢,因為它需要在每次要存檔時訪問WebCite網站。

  1. 進入http://www.webcitation.org/archive
  2. 輸入您要存檔的網址到「URL to Archive [url]」欄位。
  3. 將您的電子信箱地址輸入到「Your (citing author) E-mail Address [email]」欄位。
  4. 在輸入上述內容後,點擊“Submit”按鈕。您將被導向到一個頁面,其中包含指向您要存檔之網頁的存檔網址連結。
  5. 告知存檔過程是否成功的電子郵件將發送到您的電子信箱地址。如果成功,存檔的網址也會包括在電子郵件中。
  6. 建議您查看存檔頁面以檢查存檔過程是否成功。

書籤

Put simply, a bookmarklet is a web browser bookmark which instead of going to a web page, performs a certain function. With the WebCite bookmarklet, you click the bookmark, it takes the URL of the page you are currently looking at and submits it to WebCite for archiving. This method is easy to set up, easy to use and is fast. To get the most out of this method, it is recommended that you have your Bookmarks/Favorites bar visible or at least have your bookmarks accessible within a click or two. This method only allows you to archive the page you are currently looking at, to archive a different web page you will have to use another method.

  1. http://www.webcitation.org/bookmarklet設定書籤。
  2. 輸入電子郵件地址。告知存檔過程是否成功的電子郵件將發送到此地址。如果成功,存檔的網址也會包括在電子郵件中。
  3. 單擊“Build my Bookmarklet”按鈕。將會顯示一些文本。
  4. 在第1點的結尾,有一個“WebCite® this page”連結。這是你的個人書籤。將此連結拖動到您的書籤列。
  5. 當你想要使用書籤歸檔你正在瀏覽的網頁時,單擊它就會被導向到一個頁面,其中包含存檔連結。
  6. 建議您查看存檔頁面以檢查存檔過程是否成功。

Firefox smart keyword

Firefox smart keywords are commonly used to perform searches through the Firefox address bar or to open a bookmark by typing a keyword into the Firefox address bar. Here we are going to use a smart keyword to submit a URL to WebCite for archiving. This method is moderately simple to set up, easy to use and is fast.

  1. To set up the smart keyword, hit Ctrl+Shift+B to open up your Bookmarks Library (or by clicking the orange Firefox button on the top left of the window, then going to "Bookmarks", then "Show All Bookmarks")
  2. Browse to a location you would like to save the smart keyword bookmark in.
  3. In the menu at the top of the window, click "Organize", then "New Bookmark".
  4. Enter a name for the bookmark (e.g. WebCite).
  5. Enter http://www.webcitation.org/archive?url=%s&[email protected] into the Location field, replacing [email protected] with your email address. An email stating whether the archive process succeeded or failed will be sent to this address. If it was successful, the archive URL will also be included in the email.
  6. Enter a keyword for the bookmark. You should choose something short and this keyword must not already be used for another bookmark. (e.g. wc)
  7. Click the "Add" button. Close the Bookmarks Library.
  8. To use the smart keyword, add the keyword you chose ("wc" in the above example) followed by a space (" ") in front of the URL of the web page you would like to archive in the Firefox address bar. (e.g. If you are using "wc" as your keyword, the text in the address bar would be wc http://www.example.com/pageyouwantoarchive.html).
  9. Hit Enter. You will be sent to a page containing a link to the archive URL of the web page you wished to archive.
  10. It is recommended that you view the archived page to check if the archive process has been successful.

Chrome search engine

Although this is created through Chrome's search engine feature, this functions just like a smart keyword in Firefox. This method is moderately simple to set up, easy to use and is fast.

  1. To set up the "search engine", right click the address bar and select "Edit search engines...". At the bottom of the list that comes up, you can add a "search engine".
  2. Enter a name for the "search engine" in the first field (e.g. WebCite).
  3. Enter a keyword for the "search engine" in the second field. You should choose something short and this keyword must not already be used. (e.g. wc)
  4. Enter http://www.webcitation.org/archive?url=%s&[email protected] into the third field, replacing [email protected] with your email address. An email stating whether the archive process succeeded or failed will be sent to this address. If it was successful, the archive URL will also be included in the email.
  5. Hit Enter to save the "search engine".
  6. To use the "search engine", add the keyword you chose ("wc" in the above example) followed by a space (" ") in front of the URL of the web page you would like to archive in the Chrome address bar (e.g. If you are using "wc" as your keyword, the text in the address bar would be wc http://www.example.com/pageyouwantoarchive.html).
  7. Hit Enter. You will be sent to a page containing a link to the archive URL of the web page you wished to archive.
  8. It is recommended that you view the archived page to check if the archive process has been successful.

限制

WebCite尊重機器人排除標準,以及no-cache和no-archive標記,不會歸檔不允許歸檔的網站。

例如,《紐約時報》有個位址為 http://www.nytimes.com/robots.txt 的 robots.txt 頁面包含:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /aponline/
Disallow: /archives/
Disallow: /reuters/

因此,《紐約時報》網站中包含這些資料夾及其他任何相似的資料夾的URL的存檔請求就被排除在外。

在維基百科中使用

英文維基百科社群認為使用WebCite存檔的鏈接應以長網址顯示(請參閱RfC,但中文維基社群因為較少使用此服務,而沒有討論過這個問題)。

長網址示例:

http://www.webcitation.org/5eWaHRbn4?url=http://www.example.com/

縮網址服務類似的9位碼“快照ID”,contains a base 62 coded timestamp that can be extracted by bots and other programs. 它也用作唯一的頁面ID。後面是原始網址,這有助於防止惡意連結的隱藏,例如垃圾郵件。

第二種可選長網址:

http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.example.com&date=20091104(日期採用YYYYMMDD或YYYY-MM-DD格式)

這種方式放棄了“快照ID”,並改用日期參數。兩者都適合在維基百科內使用。

此存檔網址可以放入任何引用模板英语Wikipedia:Citation templates中的archiveurl=,並應填寫archivedate=deadurl=。如果原始網址無法訪問deadurl的值應填寫為yes。反之,若原始網址仍可訪問,deadurl應填寫no

<ref>{{cite web |last= |first= |title= |work= |publisher= |date= |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |deadurl= }}</ref>

搜尋先前存檔的網頁

先前透過WebCite存檔的網頁可經由可搜索的數據庫訪問。用戶可以按網址、日期或“快照ID”進行搜索。

相關條目

  • {{Bare URLs}},用於標記具有單純網址鏈接的頁面
  • {{WebCite}},用於鏈接
  • {{User WebCite}},用戶框
  • en:User:UBX/WebCite,第二種用戶框
  • en:User:UBX/WebCite2,用戶框,用於贊助WebCite的用戶
  • Wikipedia:失效链接,如何防止連結失效的指南
    1. ^ WebCite FAQ: A page may not be archived for a number of reasons. The page owner may specifically prohibit archiving of their content through no-cache / no-archive tags, or via a robot exclusion policy on their site. The content may be inaccessible from the WebCite® network (this is particularly likely if you are attempting to access subscription based content which your institution subscribes to on its users' behalf). Also, the content may be unreadable by the WebCite® archiver (complex JavaScript based pages, or ones involving browser checks sometimes cause our archive engine to fail).